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PON Access Method

PON is a single-fiber bidirectional optical access network with point-to-multipoint (P2MP) architecture. The PON system consists of the optical line terminal (OLT), the optical distribution network (ODN) and the optical network unit (ONU) on the user side. It is a single-fiber bidirectional system. In the downstream direction (OLT to ONU), the signals sent by the OLT reach the ONUs through the ODN. In the upstream direction (ONU to OLT), the signal sent by the ONU will only reach the OLT and will not reach the other ONUs. In order to avoid data conflict and improve network efficiency, the uplink direction adopts TDMA multiple access mode, PON and the data transmission of each ONU is managed. The ODN provides optical channels between the OLT and the ONU.

The OLT is located on the network side and placed on the central office. It can be an L2 switch or L3 router, which provides network concentration and access, can complete the optical / electrical conversion, bandwidth allocation and control the connection of each channel, and real-time monitoring and management And maintenance functions. The ONU is located on the user side and implements the processing and maintenance management of various electrical signals, providing the user side interface. The OLT and the ONU are connected through a passive optical splitter, which is used to distribute the downstream data and the centralized uplink data. PON In addition to the terminal equipment, PON system does not need electrical devices, so it is passive.

PON in a single fiber using the downlink 1490nm / uplink 1310nm wavelength combination of wavelength division multiplexing technology (WDM), the uplink direction is point to point mode, the downlink direction is broadcast mode.

In the downstream direction, the OLT transmits the data packets to all ONUs in a broadcast manner, each packet carrying a header with a transmission to the destination ONU identifier. When the data packet arrives at the ONU, the MAC layer of the ONU performs address resolution, extracts its own data packets, and discards other data packets. The upstream direction uses time division multiplexing (TDM), and the upstream information of multiple ONUs constitutes a TDM traffic to the OLT.

PON's business transparency is better, in principle, PON applicable to any standard and rate signals. Compared with the point-to-point active optical network, PON technology is characterized by simple maintenance, low cost (save fiber and optical interface), high transmission bandwidth and high cost performance. These features will make it in a long time to maintain a competitive advantage, PON has been regarded as the future direction of access network.

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